Useful country information
Total area: 46,842 sq mi (121,320 sq km)
Population (2022 est.): 3,620,312
Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Asmara, 998,000
Asmara: Capital City Profile
Other large cities: the ports of Massawa, 30,700; and Assab, 56,300
Monetary unit: Nakfa
Languages: Tigrinya (official), Arabic (official), English (official), Tigre, Kunama, Afar, other Cushitic languages
Ethnicity/race: nine recognized ethnic groups: Tigrinya 55%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%, Kunama 2%, Rashaida 2%, Bilen 2%, other (Afar, Beni Amir, Nera) 5% (2010 est.)
National Holiday: Independence Day, May 24
Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
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Eritrea is located in Eastern Africa in the Horn of Africa, to the North of Ethiopia and bordering the Red Sea in Northeast. It has a mixed Afro-Asiatic population that is divided by religion and language. The former Italian and British colony gained formal independence from Ethiopia, its last colonizer, in 1993. But independence did not end the wars in Eritrea. Conflicts with Yemen and Ethiopia followed.
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