Travel Advice

Health Tips and Information

Travel health tips to keep you safe during your holiday or business trip.

What is japanese encephalitis disease?

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused a virus that's spread through mosquito bites.

About 68,000 people are diagnosed annually as having the disease, and over 20,000 of that number die from JE-associated health consequences.

JE disease risk for Travelers

JE is a very low risk disease for most travelers to JE-endemic countries. However, some travelers will be at increased risk of infection based on factors including longer periods of travel, travel during the JE virus transmission season, spending time in rural areas, participating in a lot of outdoor activities, and staying in accommodations without air conditioning, screens, or bed nets. Higher incidence usually coinciding with the rainy season. The transmission season varies between countries but it’s mainly in May–October.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a vaccine-preventable disease Read more about JE Vaccine for Travelers

Which countries have Japanese encephalitis?

JE is recognised throughout most countries of East and South East Asia and Western Pacific regions.

Below is the list of the 24 countries in the Asian and Pacific regions where JE has become a public health issue.

Travellers are most at risk of Japanese encephalitis transmission when visiting these countries.
Australia Bangladesh Brunei Burma Cambodia China
India Indonesia Japan Laos Malaysia Nepal
North Korea Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Russia Singapore
South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Timor-Leste Vietnam


There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE. Treatment is supportive to relieve symptoms and stabilize the patient.

How to avoid JE

To reduce the risk for JE, all travellers to Japanese encephalitis areas should take precautions to avoid mosquito bites. Preventive measures include the use of mosquito repellents, long-sleeved clothes, coils and vaporizers. Travellers spending extensive time in JE endemic areas are recommended to get vaccinated before travel

The effectiveness of 2 doses of JE vaccine is 99% (CDC).

Read more about JE Vaccine for Travelers
Credit: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the list of high-risk countries for Japanese encephalitis.