Country's codes

International phone code for Turkey: +90

Standard ISO 3166-1:

    3 letters: TUR

    2 letters (internet domain): .TR

    Digital country code 792

Standard EAN-13 (country barcode): 869

Olympic country code: TUR

FIFA code: TUR

Useful country information

Total area: 297,591 sq mi (770,761 sq km); total area: 301,382 sq mi (780,580 sq km)

Population (2022 est.):85.04 million

Capital (2022 est.): Ankara, 5.394 million

Capital City
Ankara: Capital City Profile

Largest cities: Istanbul, 11.253 million; Izmir, 2.927 million; Bursa, 1.713 million; Adana, 1.468 million, Gaziantep 1.198 million.

Monetary unit: Turkish lira (TRY)

Republic of Turkey

National name: Trkiye Cumhuriyeti

Current government officials

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

Ethnicity/race: Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)

Religions: Islam (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

National Holiday: October 29, Turkey Republic Day.


The Anatolian peninsula is often called "the cradle of civilization," as it has been home to a wide variety of tribes and nations of people since at least 10,000 B.C.

On the site of Göbekli Tepe, there is the oldest known man-made structure, the collection of the oldest known megaliths in the world, dating back to around 10,000 B.C.

From about 1200 B.C., the coast of Anatolia was heavily populated by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. Numerous important cities were founded by the Greek colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (today İzmir), and Byzantium (that later became Constantinople, now Istanbul).

In the second half of the 11th century the Seljuk Turks began to invade medieval Armenia and the eastern regions of Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, thus initiating the process of Turkization in the region; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced into Armenia and Anatolia.

The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, replacing the dynastic and theocratic Ottoman system with its Sultanates and Caliphates. The new republic was based on a secular democratic, pluralist, and parliamentary system.

In 1945 Turkey joined the UN and became a member of NATO in 1952.
Turkey occupied the northern portion of Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island; relations between the two countries remain strained.

In recent years, Turkey has become a major tourist destination in Europe.

travel destinations

Country Map


Source of Information:

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