Useful country information
91,135 sq mi (236,040 sq km)
Population (22022 est.): 47.12 million
Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Kampala, 3,470,000
Kampala: Capital City Profile
Monetary unit: Ugandan new shilling
Republic of Uganda
Languages: English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Ethnicity/race: Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
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Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925.
It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 and was ruled by President NIYAZOV from 1985 until his death in 2006. NIYAZOV
retained absolute control over the country and opposition was not tolerated.
Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential election in February 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW emerged as the country's new president; he was reelected in February 2012 with 97% of the vote, in an election widely regarded as "a democratic sham."
Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves, which have yet to be fully exploited, have begun to transform the country. In 2010, new gas export pipelines that carry Turkmen gas to China and to northern Iran began operating, effectively ending the Russian monopoly on Turkmen gas exports.
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