TRAVEL IMMUNIZATIONS

Vaccines recommended for your Destination


Here you can find out which vaccinations are requiring or recommended for the areas you'll be visiting.

Vaccine Against Japanese Encephalitis

on 05 May 2022

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by a virus that's spread through mosquito bites. Read more about japanese encephalitis disease

 

JE Vaccine for Travelers

The vaccine should be given to all tourists who want to stay in high-risk geographical areas for more than a month. In addition, those who want to stay less than a month but want to engage in activities where it is possible to obtain NPPs should be vaccinated.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

As a precautionary measure, the use of IXIARO® in pregnant and lactating women should be avoided. However, travelers and their physicians should carry out a risk assessment of the theoretical risks of the JE vaccine during pregnancy against the potential risk of contracting the disease.

The disadvantages of the vaccine are

Some reactions such as fever, muscle aches and local pain and redness are associated with the vaccine. These reactions usually occur within the first three days after vaccination, are usually mild and resolve within a few days. Serious side effects are very rare after the administration of the vaccine.

Vaccine Dosing and Schedule

Two doses of vaccine are required for complete protection. The second dose should be given four weeks after the first injection. However, people over the age of 18 can receive two doses of JE vaccine at weekly intervals, giving them 99% protection. It is important to know that the time interval between entering a high-risk country and receiving the vaccine should be 7 days or longer. About 70% of  travelers who receive two doses of JE vaccine will be protected against the disease for up to 5 years. The third dose of the vaccine is recommended if more than 1 year has passed since the last dose of the vaccine, as the risk of infection with the Japanese encephalitis virus is still high. One dose of the vaccine for children under two years of age should be given at a dose of 0.25 ml. In patients aged three years and older, the dose is doubled.
People can achieve full protection 28 days after the second dose.

Is one dose of the vaccine enough?

Not really. Vaccine injection does not lead to the development of complete immune protection. The estimated protection is about 29% of a single dose of JE vaccine ten days after vaccination. Those who cannot make a second shot should try to avoid mosquito bites to make sure they are not infected with the virus.

Available vaccines

The only Japanese encephalitis vaccine available in the United States and the United Kingdom is Ixiaro. A single-dose live attenuated vaccine (SA14-14-2) made in China has become available in few Asian countries.

IXIARO® (from Valneva) vaccine schedule
Age range Dose Primary course Reinforcing immunization
Under 2 months of age Not usually recommended

(no safety or efficacy data)
Children aged 2 months to under 36 months of age 0.25ml (discard half of the vaccine)1 2 doses: Day 0 and 28

See also accelerated schedule3
For those at ongoing risk2 a single first booster dose of IXIARO® 12 months after primary immunisation is recommended.

Others should be offered a first booster dose at 12-24 months following the primary course, prior to re-exposure to JE virus.

Duration of protection, beyond two years after the first booster is uncertain.
Children aged 3 to 17 years 0.5ml 2 doses: Day 0 and 28

See also accelerated schedule3
Adults 18 to 64 years 0.5ml 2 doses: Day 0 and 28

See also accelerated schedule3
For those at ongoing risk2 a single dose of IXIARO® booster 12 months after primary immunisation is recommended.

Others should be offered the first booster dose at 12-24 months following the primary course prior to re-exposure to JE virus.

A 2nd booster (4th dose) should be offered at 10 years for those who remain at risk.
Adults aged 65 years and older 0.5ml 2 doses: Day 0 and 28

See also accelerated schedule3
For those at continued/further risk a single dose of IXIARO® booster at 12 months should be considered.

The duration of protection is uncertain for the primary course.

The length of protection following a booster dose (3rd dose) is not known.
1-See IXIARO® Summary of Product Characteristics for details on preparing the 0.25 ml dose for children aged 2 months to less than 3 years.
2- Long term travellers who expect to reside in endemic areas for appreciable periods of time
3-See also accelerated schedule below.

Accelerated schedule

Adults aged 18-65 years can be vaccinated using a licensed accelerated schedule as follows: first dose at day 0, second dose: 7 days after first dose. With both schedules, the primary immunization schedule (first and second dose) should be completed at least one week prior to potential exposure to JE [7, 19]. Use of this accelerated schedule can also be considered off license for travelers 2 months -17 years of age and those over 65 years of age when time is short.

credit: cdc.gov, travelhealthpro.org.uk and valneva.com
Last Updated: 05 May 2022
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