TRAVEL IMMUNIZATIONS

Vaccines recommended for your Destination


Here you can find out which vaccinations are requiring or recommended for the areas you'll be visiting.

Communicable diseases for which no vaccine is yet available

on 07 May 2022

There are many tropical diseases for which no vaccination is yet available. These include:

  • Malaria: No vaccination is available against malaria. People who live permanently in malarial zones have partial protection but they lose this swiftly when they move away. Protection against malaria is through a combination of avoidance of mosquito bites and the use of anti-malarial tablets. Read more about malaria
  • Other insect (vector)-borne viruses:
    • Dengue: Dengue is found in many Southeast Asian countries including Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and the Philippines.
    • Zika: As of April 2022, there are no current outbreaks of Zika worldwide, although a significant outbreak did occur in India n November of 2021. Health experts have warned that a new outbreak could happen at any time, requiring only a single mutation to generate a new variant of the virus. Read more about zika
    • chikungunya: Travelers going to countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans might be at risk for infection.In 202, Asia and the Americas were the regions most affected by chikungunya. Pakistan faced a persistent outbreak that started the previous year and reported 8 387 cases, while India suffered with 62 000 cases. In the Americas and the Caribbean  were reported 185 000 cases; the cases in Brazil accounted for >90% in the region of the Americas.  Chikungunya outbreaks were also reported in Sudan (2018), Yemen (2019) and more recently in Cambodia and Chad.
  • Parasitic diseases such as:
    • leishmaniasis found in; The Eastern Hemisphere, leishmaniasis is found in some parts of Asia, the Middle East, Africa (particularly in the tropical region and North Africa, with some cases elsewhere), and southern Europe. It is not found in Australia or the Pacific Islands. The Western Hemisphere, leishmaniasis is found in some parts of Mexico, Central America, and South America. It is not found in Chile or Uruguay.
    • Schistosomiasis (bilharzia): The countries with the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis are Sierra Leone, Ghana, Tanzania, Mozambique and Madagascar. Most of the rest of sub-saharan Africa has moderate prevalence, along with the Philippines, Yemen and some areas of Brazil.
    • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis):Chagas disease is common in parts of Mexico, Central America, and South America where an estimated 8 million people are infected.
  • AIDS/HIV.

The river Nile has been known to carry bilharzia. Photo by Oziel Gómez

Most of these communicable diseases can be avoided by travelers taking reasonable prevention measures related to:

  • Hygiene.
  • Food and drink.
  • Swimming in water known to be infested with parasitic organisms.
  • Exposure to biting insects.
  • Unprotected sexual encounters.

Credit: who.int, cdc.gov and patient.info.

 

Last Updated: 08 May 2022
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